O Desenvolvimento Regional Sustentável e os Combustíveis Renováveis

Quarta-feira, 28 de Setembro de 2011

Conforme Diamond (2005, p.18), “as sociedades escolhem o fracasso ou o sucesso”.  Segundo o autor, conforme descobertas em décadas recentes, feitas por arqueólogos, climatologistas, historiadores, paleontólogos e palinologistas, foram oito os processos através dos quais as sociedades do passado minaram a si mesmas, danificando o meio ambiente: 1) desmatamento; 2) destruição do hábitat; 3) problemas com o solo (erosão, salinização e perda de fertilidade); 4) problemas com o controle da água; 5) sobrecaça; 6) sobrepesca; 7) efeitos da introdução de novas espécies sobre as espécies nativas; e 8) aumento per capita do impacto do crescimento demográfico. Prossegue, ainda, chamando a atenção para o cenário de fascínio e mistério que envolve as ruínas nas cidades das antigas civilizações, questionando: “será que, algum dia, os turistas olharão fascinados para as torres enferrujadas dos arranha-céus de Nova York do mesmo modo que hoje olhamos para as ruínas das cidades maias cobertas pela vegetação?”.

É importante compreender a razão pela qual algumas sociedades do passado entraram em colapso e outras não, pois tais colapsos podem repetir cursos similares no futuro, verdadeiras variações sobre o mesmo tema, conforme pode-se verificar nos oito processos citados anteriormente. Práticas não sustentáveis levam a um ou mais dos oito tipos de danos ambientais listados, resultando em destruição do meio ambiente. Tais constatações justificam a importância de conciliar os aspectos de desenvolvimento dos povos e a perspectiva ambiental.

Sob esse prisma, as fontes renováveis de combustíveis são mais do que uma necessidade ambiental, elas são estratégicas para a segurança, o abastecimento e o desenvolvimento dos países. Nesse enfoque, é necessário encontrar soluções inovadoras que envolvam tecnologias de produção, distribuição e consumo, que perpassem por toda a cadeia produtiva. Esses objetivos estratégicos devem basear-se em medidas coordenadas que passam pela participação das instituições científicas e tecnológicas, universidades, empresas, além de medidas governamentais, tais como: incentivos fiscais, normas regulatórias e concessão de crédito para potencializar o crescimento de exploração de fontes renováveis.

A questão é complexa e impõe às sociedades tanto ações globais como locais, para que sejam amenizados os efeitos negativos no ritmo de crescimento econômico, do uso de recursos naturais não renováveis e da queima de combustíveis fósseis. Questiona-se, entretanto, se há alternativas viáveis para o Brasil sob o enfoque econômico, social e ambiental, no que se refere aos combustíveis renováveis?

Assim, o presente artigo tem como intuito responder esta questão e, para tal, apresenta uma revisão teórica acerca de questões de desenvolvimento regional sustentável (DRS) como forma de prover o desenvolvimento econômico, social e ao mesmo tempo de garantir a preservação do meio ambiente. Sendo a questão energética bastante discutida em âmbito mundial e um dos fatores determinantes no desenvolvimento econômico dos países, buscou-se uma revisão teórica sobre a escassez dos combustíveis fósseis e sua substituição pelos biocombustíveis renováveis. Como complemento e, para melhor entendimento dessas questões, foi abordado o caso de uma empresa de biocombustível, através do estudo do seu projeto de implantação e foram analisadas a viabilidade econômica e os impactos sociais e ambientais da sua operacionalização.


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