Reflexos das Mudanças na Concorrência do Setor de Aviação Comercial Brasileiro

Quarta-feira, 28 de Setembro de 2011

Na atualidade, a maioria dos trabalhos publicados em revistas especializadas tem ressaltado a necessidade de o gestor observar os ambientes interno e externo no qual as empresas estão inseridas, para buscar identificar e desenvolver estratégias competitivas com o objetivo de assegurar a continuidade dos negócios. 

A globalização e a conseqüente intensificação no nível de concorrência, que caracterizam a realidade atual do ambiente operacional das empresas, tem sido o principal argumento apresentado quando se discute o desenvolvimento e adoção de estratégicas competitivas. O trabalho de Porter (1989) tem sido uma das principais referências a este respeito.

No Brasil, as principais modificações no ambiente operacional externo das empresas referem-se às transformações na economia observadas nas décadas de 1980 e 1990.

Tais transformações têm provocado uma ruptura de paradigmas em relação à administração dos negócios que até então estava focada nos preços, conseqüência do protecionismo de uma economia desajustada. Estes acontecimentos também impactaram setores considerados estratégicos e de segurança governamental, e por isso sob forte regulamentação oficial. É o caso da flexibilização na proteção dada ao setor de aviação comercial (Monteiro, 2000).

Jesus (2005) aborda que a desregulamentação ocorrida em 1978 nos Estados Unidos deu início ao processo de desregulamentação e profundas mudanças no setor de aviação comercial em âmbito mundial. Tal movimento provocou, a partir da década de 1980, a abertura da concorrência no setor aéreo brasileiro, gerando maior oferta de serviços por novas empresas e uma mudança dos conceitos sobre transporte aéreo e da sua gestão.

É neste contexto que o artigo é desenvolvido, com o objetivo de descrever e analisar as mudanças ocorridas no ambiente concorrencial neste setor. Mais especificamente, procura-se evidenciar os reflexos que a transição de um setor protegido por barreiras governamentais para um ambiente de concorrência de mercado, provoca no posicionamento estratégico e desempenho das empresas. Entende-se que com esse objetivo o estudo contribui para evidenciar aos gestores as implicações ambientais sobre o processo decisório das organizações. De fato, a passagem de uma atividade protegida para uma exposição às forças de mercado enseja mudanças de posturas e atitudes. A apresentação dos efeitos no desempenho e resultado das empresas, como apresentado neste estudo, é uma das alternativas para tal evidenciação.

Ressalta-se que o grande apelo que o tema vem recebendo ultimamente pela mídia tem se restringido às questões infra-estruturais físicas do sistema e ao desconforto que tem provocado aos usuários. Questões relacionadas à gestão estratégica das empresas, no âmbito de um mercado concorrencial da forma como tratado neste estudo, não tem sido abordado pela mídia.


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